AIM: The increasing burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) could be alleviated by effective HPV vaccination programs. In this systematic review, we examined barriers to introduction, implementation, and/or sustainability of HPV vaccination programs in LMICs in the Asia-Pacific region (AP-LMICs). METHODS: A systematic search of literature from the past 10 years (2010-2019) was performed through PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Google Scholar. Studies were included if they reported barriers to HPV vaccination in AP-LMICs. All study designs were included except commentaries and editorials. The journal articles were assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklists. RESULTS: A total of 46 eligible articles were included. An increase in publications was noted from 2010 to 2019. Barriers were diverse and were classified into four levels--government, healthcare providers (HCPs), society, and individual. The top specific barriers that were identified across AP-LMICs are lack of funding and political support at the government level, lack of awareness among HCP and lack of vaccination programs at the level of health providers, and the perceived cost/benefit ratio for the individual level. CONCLUSION: Barriers to successful implementation of HPV vaccination programs differ among Asia-Pacific LMICs. Policymakers will need to evaluate the relative importance of these barriers in their target areas and population in order to draft an effective dissemination and implementation strategy.

  • South-East Asia
  • All age groups
  • Low and Middle Income Countries
  • Acceptance
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)