Background: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infectious disease caused by the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in patients with symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. More than 25 European countries have one or more TBE-endemic areas. Although two TBE vaccines, FSME-IMMUN® and Encepur®, are commonly used in Europe, there are no published reviews of the real-world effectiveness of TBE vaccines in Europe or elsewhere. Methods: We searched PubMed for TBE vaccine effectiveness (VE) articles and extracted information on country, study design, study period, study population, number of TBEV-infected cases, number of participants, and VE against TBEV infection and outcomes. Results: We identified 13 studies, conducted in Austria, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Germany, and Switzerland, published in 2003–2023. One study was a cohort investigation of a milk-borne outbreak. In the other studies, 11 (91.7%) used the screening method and two (16.7%) used a case-control design (one study used both). TBE vaccines were highly effective (VE estimates >92%) against TBEV infection in all age groups. Vaccines were also highly protective against mild infections (i.e., infections in patients without symptoms of CNS inflammation), and against infections resulting in TBE and hospitalization. Vaccines were also highly protective against the most serious outcomes such as hospitalization greater than 12 days. Product-specific VE estimates were also high, though limited data were available. Studies in Austria, the Czech Republic, Latvia, and Switzerland estimated that TBE vaccines prevented >1,000 TBE cases a year, avoiding many hospitalizations and deaths, in these countries combined. Conclusions: Published VE studies demonstrate a high real-world effectiveness of the commercially available TBE vaccines in Europe. Although cases averted have been estimated in only four countries, TBE vaccination prevents thousands of cases in Europe each year. To prevent life-threatening TBE, TBE vaccine uptake and compliance with the vaccination schedule should be increased in residents of, and travelers to, TBE-endemic countries in Europe.

  • Europe
  • All age groups
  • Tick-borne encephalitis
  • Efficacy/effectiveness