Pneumococcal disease in adults includes invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), an acute and serious communicable disease with manifestations such as meningitis, bacteremia and bacteremic pneumonia and empyema, as well as non-invasive pneumococcal disease such as community acquired pneumonia and acute otitis media in children. It is caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium. Of the more than 100 serotypes of this bacterium, a small number cause the majority of disease. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia is the most common presentation of IPD among adults.
Based on immunogenicity data relative to previously authorized pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PNEU-C) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines (PNEU-P), Health Canada has recently authorized two new PNEU-C vaccines:
- PNEU-C-15 (15-valent) is authorised for infants, children, and adolescents from 6 weeks through 17 years of age and adults 18 years of age and older with an indication for prevention of IPD caused by 15 serotypes of S. pneumoniae (1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, 22F, 23F, and 33F).
- PNEU-C-20 (20-valent) is authorized for adults 18 years of age and older with an indication for prevention of pneumonia and IPD caused by 20 serotypes of S. pneumoniae (1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 8, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 18C, 19A, 19F, 22F, 23F, and 33F).
No efficacy data are currently available for either PNEU-C-15 or PNEU-C-20.
IPD is most common in the very young, the elderly, and groups with medical conditions and/or other risk factors that place them at high risk of IPD (see Table 1).
NACI recommends the use of PNEU-C-20, or PNEU-C-15 followed by pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PNEU-P-23), in adults at a higher risk of invasive pneumococcal disease.
- All adults 65 years of age and older should receive a single dose of PNEU-C-20.
- Adults who are 50 to 64 years of age and living with underlying medical conditions and/or other risk factors that place them at high risk of IPD should receive a single dose of PNEU-C-20.
- Adults who are 18 years of age and older living with immunocompromising conditions (IC) should also receive a single dose of PNEU-C-20.
- PNEU-C-15 followed by PNEU-P-23 may be offered as an alternative if PNEU-C-20 is not available.
PNEU-C-15 and PNEU-C-20 are supplied in a single-dose, prefilled syringe. Both PNEU-C-15 and PNEU-C-20 are to be administered intramuscularly. A standard schedule for immunization is one 0.5ml dose. Contraindications to administration of either PNEU-C-15 or PNEU-C-20 include hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to the vaccine or any of its components. Pneumococcal vaccines may be administered concurrently with other vaccines, except for a different formulation of pneumococcal vaccine (e.g., concurrent use of conjugate and polysaccharide).
Pneumococcal infection can cause severe infections and can lead to significant mortality and morbidity with lifelong complications. The most effective way to prevent these infections is through immunization.
- Older adults
- Pneumococcal disease