OBJECTIVES: Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important causes of diseases leading to child mortality, especially in low- and lower-middle-income countries. This review aims to describe the prevalence of carriage of S. pneumoniae and the impact of vaccination among children aged under five years in low- and lower-middle-income countries since 2012. METHOD: The study is a systematic review of the literature. Relevant publications were searched in PubMed and screened systematically for information on the prevalence of carriage of S. pneumoniae among children aged under five years. 149 publications were identified, and 20 were included in the review. RESULTS: The prevalence of S. pneumoniae ranged between 26.7% - 90.7%. The prevalence of vaccine-type carriage ranged between 4.4% - 57.6% but generally decreased in countries after the introduction of PCV, with a reduction of 15.6% - 65.7%. Half of the post- pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) studies reported a vaccine-type carriage rate below 15%. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-type-carriage has decreased in most countries with the introduction of PCV. Still, coverage is only moderate, and carriage rates of S. pneumoniae vary significantly between countries. Continuous monitoring of carriage is needed to evaluate the effect of the further introduction of PCV10 and PCV13.

  • Newborn
  • Children
  • Low and Middle Income Countries
  • Coverage
  • Pneumococcal disease