BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic began in March 2019, and given the number of casualties and adverse effects on the economy, society, and all aspects of the health system, efforts have been made to develop vaccines from the beginning of the pandemic. Numerous vaccines against COVID-19 infection have been developed in several technologies and have spread rapidly. There have been reported multiple complications of the COVID-19 vaccines as with other vaccines. A number of studies have reported multiple sclerosis (MS ) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) as complications of COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: First, we found 954 studies from 4 databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science) from inception to March 1st, 2022. Next, duplicate articles were eliminated, and 476 studies remained. Then 412 studies were removed according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. After obtaining the full text of 64 articles, 12 studies were selected finally. RESULTS: The data were extracted from included studies in a table. Our data includes demographic data, comorbidities, vaccines information and side effects, NMOSD and MS symptoms, laboratory and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results, treatment, and outcome of all cases. CONCLUSION: MS and NMOSD are two neuroinflammatory disorders that arise in the CNS. Cases of MS and NMOSD have been reported following COVID-19 vaccination. Nevertheless, more studies with more subjects are needed to assess any possible relationship between the COVID-19 vaccine and central nervous system demyelination.

  • Adults
  • Vaccine/vaccination
  • Safety
  • COVID-19