(1) Background: The coverage of hepatitis B vaccination remains low in developing countries to date. This systematic review thus analyzes the determinants of people’s knowledge and vaccination status as well as the reasons why people in developing countries chose not to receive the hepatitis B vaccination. (2) Methods: We searched four databases to identify all studies from developing countries published within the past 10 years. Both low-risk and high-risk populations aged older than 15 years old were eligible for the study. The quality of studies was assessed by the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale assessment. (3) Results: This study identified 2443 articles, 89 of which were included in the analysis. Monthly income, occupational status, and profession as a health-care worker were the strongest predictive factors for both knowledge of hepatitis B and vaccination status. In addition, strong predictor variables of hepatitis B knowledge were knowing an infected person and level of education, while health insurance, management’s protection at workplace, infection training, and experience of hepatitis B exposure were strong influencing factors for vaccine uptake. (4) Conclusions: Exposure to information, support from institutions, and financial support related to vaccination cost have a positive impact on the knowledge about hepatitis B infection and vaccination coverage.

  • Adolescents (10-18 years)
  • Adults (18+)
  • Elderly (65+)
  • Healthcare workers
  • Pregnant women
  • Acceptance
  • Coverage
  • Low and Middle Income Countries
  • Hepatitis B