Mass vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health strategy to control the COVID-19 pandemic. With the increasing number of vaccinations, COVID-19 vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy (C19-VAL) has been frequently reported. Current findings emphasize the characteristics of C19-VAL. The mechanism of C19-VAL is complicated to explore. Accumulated reports separately show that C19-VAL incidence is associated with receiver age and gender, reactive change within lymph nodes (LN), etc. We constructed a systematic review to evaluate the associated elements of C19-VAL and provide the mechanism of C19-VAL. Articles were searched from PubMed, Web of Science and EMBASE by using the processing of PRISMA. The search terms included combinations of the COVID-19 vaccine, COVID-19 vaccination and lymphadenopathy. Finally, sixty-two articles have been included in this study. Our results show that days post-vaccination and B cell germinal center response are negatively correlated with C19-VAL incidence. The reactive change within LN is highly related to C19-VAL development. The study results suggested that strong vaccine immune response may contribute to the C19-VAL development and perhaps through the B cell germinal center response post vaccination. From the perspective of imaging interpretation, it is important to carefully distinguish reactive lymph nodes from metastatic lymph node enlargement through medical history collection or evaluation, especially in patients with underlying malignancy.

  • All age groups
  • Vaccine/vaccination
  • Efficacy/effectiveness
  • COVID-19