Various studies have suggested the possible cardiovascular (CV) protective effects of the pneumococcal vaccine (PV). Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between recipients of PV with mortality and CV outcomes among patients with and without established cardiovascular disease. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, and Sco-pus for studies evaluating the effect of PV on mortality and CV outcomes. A total of 15 studies with 347,444 patients were included in the meta-analysis: 111,784 patients received PV (32%) and 235,660 patients were in the unvaccinated group (68%). Recipients of PV were associated with decreased all-cause mortality (HR, 0.76 (95% CI: 0.66 to 0.87), p < 0.001). PV was associated with a decrease in the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) (HR, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56–0.96), p = 0.02), without significant reduction in CV mortality (HR, 0.87 (95% CI: 0.72–1.07), p = 0.18) and stroke (HR, 1.01 (95% CI: 0.93–1.10), p = 0.82). Our study found PV was associated with decreased risk of all-cause mortality and MI. Future RCTs will be necessary to confirm benefits associated with receipt of PV.

  • Adolescents (10-18 years)
  • Adults (18+)
  • Elderly (65+)
  • Safety
  • Pneumococcal disease