AIM: Myopericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination were the most serious adverse events reported in children over 5 years of age. We want summarize these cases, describing their incidence, clinical features, diagnostic pathways, therapeutic strategies and outcome. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted until 20 March 2022 by bibliographic electronic databases. We included all reports of post-vaccination myopericarditis in children aged between 5 and 18 years. RESULTS: All reported cases had elevated serum Troponin levels, associated with electrocardiogram changes, but often with normal echocardiogram. Cardiac magnetic resonance images always showed typical alterations. The pathogenetic mechanism is still unknown. Myocarditis following post-COVID vaccination is more frequent in males with an average age of about 15 years. Treatment involves the usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and the average hospitalization is about 3 days. The long-term consequences are not yet known, so these patients should be studied in a cardiological follow up and abstention from physical activity should be recommended. CONCLUSION: The benefits of COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents appear to outweigh the risk of developing post-vaccination myopericarditis. We can also speculate a possible approval of vaccination in children under 5 years for the coming winter.
- Children (2-9 years)
- Adolescents (10-18 years)