OBJECTIVE: Adrenal haemorrhage (AH) is an uncommon, usually incidental imaging finding in acutely unwell patients. AH has been reported during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and following ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccination. The Society for Endocrinology (SfE) established a task force to describe the UK experience of COVID-19-related AH., DESIGN: A systematic literature review was undertaken. A survey was conducted through the SfE clinical membership to identify patients with COVID-19-related AH using a standardized data collection tool., RESULTS: The literature search yielded 25 cases of COVID-19-related AH (19 bilateral; 13 infection-related, and 12 vaccine-related). Eight UK centres responded to the survey with at least one case. A total of 18 cases were included in the descriptive study, including 11 from the survey and 7 UK-based patients from the systematic review. Seven patients (4 males; median age 53 (range 26-70) years), had infection-related AH (four bilateral). Median time from positive COVID-19 test to AH detection was 8 (range 1-30) days. Eleven cases of vaccine-related AH (eight bilateral) were captured (3 males; median age 47 (range 23-78) years). Median time between vaccination (nine Oxford-AstraZeneca and two Pfizer-BioNTech) and AH was 9 (range 2-27) days; 9/11 AH occurred after the first vaccine dose. Acute abdominal pain was the commonest presentation (72%) in AH of any cause. All 12 patients with bilateral AH and one patient with unilateral AH required glucocorticoid replacement., CONCLUSION: Adrenal haemorrhage with consequential adrenal insufficiency can be a complication of COVID-19 infection and vaccination. Adrenal function assessment is mandatory to avoid the potentially fatal consequences of unrecognized adrenal insufficiency. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • Europe
  • United Kingdom
  • Adults
  • Older adults
  • Vaccine/vaccination
  • Safety
  • COVID-19