BACKGROUND: Hip fracture in elderly patients is associated with a significant mortality which may be worsened by COVID-19 infection. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the effect of COVID-19 infection and mortality rates in hip fracture patients in the United Kingdom (UK) during the first surge of the pandemic. DESIGN: A systematic literature search of 9 online databases was undertaken independently by 2 reviewers using the Cochrane methodology for systematic reviews. Eligibility criteria were any study of an adult population with a hip fracture that assessed the relationship between COVID-19 infection and 30-day mortality in the UK. Meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Out of 309 identified articles, 10 studies reporting on 2448 hip fracture patients met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that the estimated mortality rate in patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection was 32.5% (95% CI= 28.3 to 37.0) compared to 8.6% (95% CI= 6.3 to 11.6) in COVID-19 negative patients. Meta-analysis of 9 comparative studies showed a significantly higher mortality in patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection as compared to patients without (RR=3.937, 95% CI= 2.867 to 5.406, P<.001). Similar findings were obtained when comparing mortality in COVID-19 laboratory confirmed or clinically suspected infected vs non-infected patients (RR=4.576, 95% CI = 3.589 to 5.835, P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infection is associated with a 4-fold increase in mortality risk in hip fracture patients. Every effort should be made to avoid COVID-19 infection and nosocomial exposure in this highly vulnerable patient group.
- Elderly (65+)
- Adults (18+)