Immunization is an essential component of national health plans. However, the growing number of new vaccine introductions, vaccination campaigns and increasing administrative costs create logistic and financial challenges, especially in resource-limited settings. Sub-national geographic targeting of vaccination programs is a potential strategy for governments to reduce the impact of infectious disease outbreaks while optimizing resource allocation and reducing costs, promoting sustainability of critically important national immunization plans. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to identify studies that investigated the cost-effectiveness of geographically targeted sub-national vaccination programs, either through routine immunization or supplementary immunization activities. A total of 16 studies were included in our review, covering nine diseases of interest: cholera, dengue, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, measles, rotavirus, Shigella and typhoid fever. All studies modelled cost-effectiveness of geographically targeted vaccination. Despite the variation in study design, disease focus and country context, studies generally found that in countries where a heterogenous burden of disease exists, sub-national geographic targeting of vaccination programs in areas of high disease burden was more cost-effective than a non-targeted strategy. Sensitivity analysis revealed that cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to variations in vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, mortality rate, administrative and operational costs, discount rate, and treatment costs. This systematic review identified several key characteristics related to geographic targeting of vaccination, including the vaccination strategy used, variations in modelling parameters and their impact on cost-effectiveness. Additional research and guidance is needed to support the appropriateness and feasibility of geographically targeted vaccination and to determine what country context would make this a viable complement to routine immunization programs.

  • Newborn
  • Children
  • Adolescents
  • Economic aspects