BACKGROUND: Approximately 97% of global deaths due to RSV occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Until recently, the only licensed preventive intervention has been a shortacting monoclonal antibody (mAb), palivizumab (PVZ) that is expensive and intensive to administer, making it poorly suited for low-resource settings. Currently, new longer acting RSV mAbs and maternal vaccines are emerging from late-stage clinical development with promising clinical effectiveness. However, evidence of economic value and affordability must also be considered if these interventions are to be globally accessible. This systematic review's objective was to summarise existing evidence on the cost-of-illness (COI) and cost-effectiveness of RSV prevention interventions in LMICs., METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review using the Embase, MEDLINE, and Global Index Medicus databases for publications between Jan 2000 and Jan 2022. Two categories of studies in LMICs were targeted: cost-of-illness (COI) of RSV episodes and cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) of RSV preventive interventions including maternal vaccines and long-acting mAbs. Of the 491 articles reviewed, 19 met the inclusion criteria., RESULTS: COI estimates varied widely: for severe RSV, the cost per episode ranged from $92 to $4114. CEA results also varied-e.g. evaluations of long-acting mAbs found ICERs from $462/DALY averted to $2971/DALY averted. Study assumptions of input parameters varied substantially and their results often had wide confidence intervals., CONCLUSIONS: RSV represents a substantial disease burden; however, evidence of economic burden is limited. Knowledge gaps remain regarding the economic value of new technologies specifically in LMICs. Further research is needed to understand the economic burden of childhood RSV in LMICs and reduce uncertainty about the relative value of anticipated RSV prevention interventions. Most CEA studies evaluated palivizumab with fewer analyses of interventions in development that may be more accessible for LMICs. Copyright © 2023. The Author(s).

  • Newborn
  • Children
  • Pregnant women
  • Low and Middle Income Countries
  • Economic aspects
  • RSV (Respiratory syncytial virus)