American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons bear a disproportionate burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers and face unique challenges to HPV vaccination. We undertook a systematic review to synthesize the available evidence on HPV vaccination barriers and factors among AI/AN persons in the United States. We searched fourteen bibliographic databases, four citation indexes, and six gray literature sources from July 2006 to January 2021. We did not restrict our search by study design, setting, or publication type. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts (stage 1) and full-text (stage 2) of studies for selection. Both reviewers then independently extracted data using a data extraction form and undertook quality appraisal and bias assessment using the modified Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. We conducted thematic synthesis to generate descriptive themes. We included a total of 15 records after identifying 3017, screening 1415, retrieving 203, and assessing 41 records. A total of 21 unique barriers to HPV vaccination were reported across 15 themes at the individual (n = 12) and clinic or provider (n = 3) levels. At the individual level, the most common barriers to vaccination-safety and lack of knowledge about the HPV vaccine-were each reported in the highest number of studies (n = 9; 60%). The findings from this review signal the need to develop interventions that target AI/AN populations to increase the adoption and coverage of HPV vaccination. Failure to do so may widen disparities.

  • Americas
  • Adolescents
  • Adults
  • Parents/caregivers
  • Healthcare workers
  • Acceptance
  • Coverage
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)