BACKGROUND: World Health Organization recommends that influenza vaccines should benefit as much of the population as possible, especially where resources are limited. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the greatest threats to health systems worldwide. The present study aimed to extend the evidence of the association between influenza vaccination and COVID-19 to promote the former. METHODS: In this systematic review, four electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, were searched for related studies published up to May 2022. All odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled by meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 36 studies, encompassing 55,996,841 subjects, were included in this study. The meta-analysis for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection provided an OR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73-0.87). The statistically significant estimates for clinical outcomes were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72-0.96) for intensive care unit admission, 0.69 (95% CI: 0.57-0.84) for ventilator support, and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.52-0.93) for fatal infection, while no effect seen in hospitalization with an OR of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.68-1.10). CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccination helps limit SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe outcomes, but further studies are needed. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD 42022333747.

  • All age groups
  • Healthcare workers
  • Pregnant women
  • Vaccine/vaccination
  • COVID-19
  • Influenza
  • Efficacy/effectiveness