Purpose: Theoretical frameworks are useful tools to explain the dynamics of behavioral change, develop, and implement intervention studies. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the application of theoretical frameworks and models to HPV vaccination intervention studies in the United States (US) from January 2006 to December 2019. Methods: A comprehensive search across databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsycINFO, was conducted. Articles were included in the systematic analysis if at least one theory was used to develop the intervention phase. All intervention studies targeting populations in the US without restrictions of age, income, sex, and ethnicity were included. Articles were included in the meta-analysis if vaccine uptake and/or vaccine completion was addressed. Results: The Health Belief Model, Motivational Interviewing, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Information–Motivation–Behavioral Skills were the most used theories. Based on theory integrity, theory rationale, and theory operationalization, most of the studies (60%) were rated high for the application of the theoretical frameworks. Our results suggest a preference for theoretical frameworks targeting individual change rather than community change and the existence of gender disparities in the application of theoretical frameworks. The association between theory and increase of likelihood in vaccine uptake and completion was not supported. Conclusion: This review spotlights common issues in the application of theoretical frameworks in HPV vaccine interventions in the US. Our results suggest we are still in a developmental phase on several aspects of theory application to HPV vaccination.

  • Americas
  • United States of America
  • Adolescents
  • Adults
  • Parents/caregivers
  • Healthcare workers
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Coverage
  • Acceptance