Background: Common vaccinations may have impacts on dementia risk, but current evidence is inconsistent. We therefore investigated the association between vaccinations and dementia risk by systematic review and meta-analysis approach. Methods: We conducted an extensive search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to identify studies that compared the risk of dementia in vaccinated versus unvaccinated populations. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled as measures. Results: Of the 9124 records initially retrieved, 17 studies with 1857134 participants were included in our analysis. The overall pooled results showed that vaccinations were associated with a 35% lower dementia risk (HR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.60-0.71, P overall effect < 0.001; I2 = 91.8%, P heterogeneity<0.001). All types of vaccination were associated with a trend toward reduced dementia risk, with rabies (HR=0.43), tetanus & diphtheria & pertussis (Tdap) (HR=0.69), herpes zoster (HR=0.69), influenza (HR=0.74), hepatitis A (HR=0.78), typhoid (HR=0.80), and hepatitis B (HR=0.82) vaccinations being significant. Individuals with more full vaccination types and more annual influenza vaccinations were less likely to develop dementia. Gender and age had no effect on this association. Conclusion: Routine adult vaccinations are associated with a significant reduction in dementia risk and may be an effective strategy for dementia prevention. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal effects of this association and the underlying mechanisms.

  • Adults
  • Older adults
  • Efficacy/effectiveness