Pertussis, diphtheria, and tetanus (DTP)-containing vaccines combined with polio vaccines are recommended by the World Health Organization as part of routine immunization programs. The decline of immunity after vaccination has been considered as a possible reason for the reemergence of vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the potential duration of protective immunity of pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, and polio through a systematic review and meta-analysis. We examined data on immunological and clinical outcomes. We observed evidence of waning postvaccination immunity for pertussis and diphtheria, whereas tetanus and polio vaccines provided sustained protection. Further research on the risk factors of waning immunity after vaccination and the optimal timing of booster doses for pertussis and diphtheria is needed.
- All age groups