Vaccine hesitancy is a challenge for the success and optimal implementation of COVID-19 immunization programs in the US. The objective of this study was to summarize multilevel determinants of COVID-19 vaccination intention in the US to inform future intervention opportunities. To this end, we conducted a rapid systematic review by searching published articles via PubMed published by October 5, 2021, following the PRISMA guidelines. One hundred and six articles were included. According to nationally representative studies, the overall COVID-19 acceptance rate ranges from 53.6% to 84.4%. Individual (demographics, health history, behaviors and health beliefs), interpersonal (having a close friend/family member impacted by COVID-19), healthcare and societal level factors (healthcare provider recommendations, source/credential of COVID-19 related information, and COVID-19 related conspiracy theories) all contributed to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the US. This study demonstrates that the acceptance to COVID-19 vaccines is influenced by various factors, particularly the role of healthcare providers in enhancing public intent to vaccination. Potential interventions to mitigate people’s concerns over the vaccines and address vaccine-related conspiracy/misinformation from social media are also critical to encourage vaccine uptake in the US.

  • Americas
  • United States of America
  • All age groups
  • Healthcare workers
  • Vaccine/vaccination
  • Acceptance
  • COVID-19