OBJECTIVES: Vaccinating healthcare workers (HCWs) against COVID-19 has been a public health priority since rollout began in late 2020. Promoting COVID-19 vaccination among HCWs would benefit from identifying modifiable behavioural determinants. We sought to identify and categorize studies looking at COVID-19 vaccination acceptance to identify modifiable factors to increase uptake in HCWs. STUDY DESIGN: Rapid evidence review. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane databases until May 2021 and conducted a grey literature search to identify cross-sectional, cohort, and qualitative studies. Key barriers to, and enablers of, vaccine acceptance were categorized using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), a comprehensive theoretical framework comprising 14 behavioural domains. RESULTS: From 19,591 records, 74 studies were included. Almost two-thirds of responding HCWs were willing to accept a COVID-19 vaccine (median = 64%, interquartile range = 50-78%). Twenty key barriers and enablers were identified and categorized into eight TDF domains. The most frequently identified barriers to COVID-19 vaccination were as follows: concerns about vaccine safety, efficacy, and speed of development (TDF domain: Beliefs about consequences); individuals in certain HCW roles (Social/professional role and identity); and mistrust in state/public health response to COVID-19 (Social influences). Routinely being vaccinated for seasonal influenza (Reinforcement), concerns about contracting COVID-19 (Beliefs about consequences) and working directly with COVID-19 patients (Social/professional role and identity) were key enablers of COVID-19 vaccination among HCWs. DISCUSSION: Our review identified eight (of a possible 14) behavioural determinants of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among HCWs that, if targeted, could help design tailored vaccination messaging, policy, campaigns, and programs to support HCWs vaccination uptake.

  • Healthcare workers
  • Acceptance
  • Vaccine/vaccination
  • COVID-19