Immunogenicity from seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) remains suboptimal in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs). We conducted a systematic review that compared the safety and immunogenicity of nonstandard influenza vaccination strategies with single-dose IIV in SOTRs. Booster doses and possibly high-dose (HD) influenza vaccination strategies seem to hold promise for improving vaccination immunogenicity in SOTRs. Administration of intradermal and MF59-adjuvanted trivalent IIV (IIV3) did not improve vaccine immunogenicity compared with single-dose intramuscular IIV. Alternative vaccine strategies were generally well tolerated; SOTRs who received HD, intradermal or adjuvanted IIV3 had a higher frequency of infection site reactions, while systemic adverse events were more frequent in SOTRs who received HD IIV3. Allograft rejection rates were similar in both groups. SOTRs should continue to receive standard-dose IIV annually in accordance with current recommendations, pending future studies to determine the optimal timing, frequency, and dosage of IIV using the booster-dose strategy.
Children (2-9 years) Adolescents (10-18 years) Adults (18+) Elderly (65+) Efficacy/effectiveness Safety Administration Influenza