Abstract

BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for poor prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is necessary to enable the risk stratification and modify the patient's management. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the in-hospital mortality and risk factors of death in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: All studies were searched via the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang databases. The in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients was pooled. Odds ratios (ORs) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for evaluation of risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 80 studies were included with a pooled in-hospital mortality of 14% (95% CI: 12.2- 15.9%). Older age (MD =13.32, 95% CI: 10.87-15.77; P<0.00001), male (OR =1.66, 95% CI: 1.37-2.01; P<0.00001), hypertension (OR =2.67, 95% CI: 2.08-3.43; P<0.00001), diabetes (OR =2.14, 95% CI: 1.76-2.6; P<0.00001), chronic respiratory disease (OR =3.55, 95% CI: 2.65-4.76; P<0.00001), chronic heart disease/cardiovascular disease (OR =3.15, 95% CI: 2.43-4.09; P<0.00001), elevated levels of high-sensitive cardiac troponin I (MD =66.65, 95% CI: 16.94-116.36; P=0.009), D-dimer (MD =4.33, 95% CI: 2.97-5.68; P<0.00001), C-reactive protein (MD =48.03, 95% CI: 27.79-68.27; P<0.00001), and a decreased level of albumin at admission (MD =-3.98, 95% CI: -5.75 to -2.22; P<0.0001) are associated with higher risk of death. Patients who developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR =62.85, 95% CI: 29.45-134.15; P<0.00001), acute cardiac injury (OR =25.16, 95% CI: 6.56-96.44; P<0.00001), acute kidney injury (OR =22.86, 95% CI: 4.60-113.66; P=0.0001), and septic shock (OR =24.09, 95% CI: 4.26-136.35; P=0.0003) might have a higher in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced age, male, comorbidities, increased levels of acute inflammation or organ damage indicators, and complications are associated with the risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients, and should be integrated into the risk stratification system.
All age groups Risk factor COVID-19