Abstract

Background We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the latest evidence on the association between cerebrovascular, cardiovascular disease, and poor outcome in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Methods A comprehensive systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, SCOPUS, EuropePMC, and Cochrane Central Database. The outcome of interest was composite poor outcome that comprised of mortality and severe COVID-19. Results A total of 4448 patients were obtained from 16 studies. Cerebrovascular disease was associated with increased poor composite outcome (RR 2.04 [1.43, 2.91], p<0.001; I(2): 77%). Subgroup analysis revealed that cerebrovascular disease was associated with mortality (RR 2.38 [1.92, 2.96], p<0.001; I(2): 0%) and was borderline significant for severe COVID-19 (RR 1.88 [1.00, 3.51], p=0.05; I(2): 87%). Cardiovascular disease was associated with increased composite poor outcome (RR 2.23 [1.71, 2.91], p<0.001; I(2): 60%), and its mortality (RR 2.25 [1.53, 3.29], p<0.001; I(2): 33%) and severe COVID-19 (RR 2.25 [1.51, 3.36], p<0.001; I(2): 76%) subgroup. Meta-regression demonstrate that the association was not influenced by gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, and respiratory comorbidities. The association between cerebrovascular disease and poor outcome was not affected by cardiovascular diseases and vice versa. Conclusion Cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases were associated with increased risk for poor outcome in COVID-19.
Adults (18+) Elderly (65+) Risk group Risk factor COVID-19