Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases are increasing rapidly worldwide. Similar to Middle East respiratory syndrome where cardiovascular diseases were present in nearly 30% of cases, the increased presence of cardiovascular comorbidities remains true for COVID-19 as well. The mechanism of this association remains unclear at this time. Therefore, we reviewed the available literature and tried to find the probable association between cardiovascular disease with disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched Medline (via PubMed) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published until Sept 5, 2020. Nineteen articles were included involving 6,872 COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The random-effect meta-analysis showed that cardiovascular disease was significantly associated with severity and mortality for COVID-19: odds ratio (OR) 2.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.98-4.21 for severity and OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.67-5.39 for mortality, respectively. Risk of COVID-19 severity was higher in patients having diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, malignancy, cerebrovascular disease and chronic kidney disease. Similarly, patients with diabetes, hypertension, chronic liver disease, cerebrovascular disease and chronic kidney disease were at higher risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that cardiovascular disease has a negative effect on health status of COVID-19 patients. However, large prevalence studies demonstrating the consequences of comorbid cardiovascular disease are urgently needed to understand the extent of these concerning comorbidities.
Adults (18+) Older adults (65+) Risk group Risk factor COVID-19