To examine the evidence related to the efficacy of condom use versus the human papillomavirus vaccine in the prevention of human papillomavirus infections.

Data sources
Cochrane, CINHAL, PubMed, and Clinical Evidence. Various combinations of the keywords HPV, vaccine, and condoms were used for the search.

Study selection
Randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trials were reviewed for evaluation of the human papillomavirus vaccine. Several longitudinal studies and a meta-analysis were used for review of condom efficacy related to human papillomavirus transmission.

Data extraction and synthesis
Studies evaluating the use of either condoms or the human papillomavirus vaccine and its impact on human papillomavirus transmission rates, detected through either human papillomavirus DNA testing or clinical disease.

The evidence indicates that the greatest degree of protection from specific types of human papillomavirus infection is provided by the vaccine. However, the use of condoms in addition to the human papillomavirus vaccine provides the greatest protection from the untoward effects of human papillomavirus infection and may also provide protection against human papillomavirus types not in the vaccine and other sexually transmitted infections.

Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, Volume 37, Issue 3, Pages 329–337

Human papillomavirus (HPV)