Aims To estimate the prevalence of established diabetes and its association with the clinical severity and in-hospital mortality associated with COVID-19. Data synthesis We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, from 1st January 2020 to 15th May 2020, for observational studies of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects modeling. A total of 83 eligible studies with 78,874 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included. The pooled prevalence of established diabetes was 14.34% (95% CI 12.62-16.06%). However, the prevalence of diabetes was higher in non-Asian vs. Asian countries (23.34% [95% CI 16.40-30.28] vs. 11.06% [95% CI 9.73-12.39]), and in patients aged ≥60 years vs. those aged <60 years (23.30% [95% CI 19.65-26.94] vs. 8.79% [95% CI 7.56-10.02]). Pre-existing diabetes was associated with an approximate twofold higher risk of having severe/critical COVID-19 illness (n=22 studies; random-effects odds ratio 2.10, 95% CI 1.71-2.57; I2=41.5%) and ∼threefold increased risk of in-hospital mortality (n=15 studies; random-effects odds ratio 2.68, 95% CI 2.09-3.44; I2=46.7%). Funnel plots and Egger’s tests did not reveal any significant publication bias. Conclusions Pre-existing diabetes is significantly associated with greater risk of severe/critical illness and in-hospital mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19.
All age groups Risk group Risk factor COVID-19