The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness of influenza vaccination alone versus influenza plus pneumococcal dual vaccination for the prevention of pneumonia and mortality in adults ≥ 65 years of age. Medline, Cochrane, CENTRAL, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 2-arm prospective studies, or retrospective cohort studies; 2) Patients were ≥ 65 years of age with or without chronic respiratory disease; 3) Patients received the influenza vaccine alone or dual pneumococcal and influenza vaccination; 4) Results included incidence of recurrent respiratory tract infections, length of hospital stay, and overall mortality rate. The outcomes were pneumonia and all-cause mortality rates. Of 142 studies identified in the database searches, 6 were ultimately included in the systematic review, and 5 were included in meta-analysis. The number of patients that received the influenza vaccination alone ranged from 211 to 29,346 (total = 53,107), and the number that received influenza+pneumococcal vaccination ranged from 246 to 72,107 (total = 102,068). Influenza+pneumococcal vaccination was associated with a significantly lower pneumonia rate than influenza vaccination alone (relative risk [RR] = 0.835, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.718–0.971, P = 0.019), and with a significantly lower all-cause mortality rate than influenza vaccination alone (relative risk [RR] = 0.771, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.707–0.842, P = 0.001). In conclusion, the results of this study support concomitant pneumococcal and influenza vaccination of the elderly as a dual vaccination strategy is associated with lower pneumonia and all-cause mortality rates. © 2016 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis © Yan-Yang Zhang, Xue-Feng Tang, Chang-Hui Du, Bin-Bing Wang, Zhen-Wang Bi, and Bi-Rong Dong.
Elderly (65+) Administration Efficacy/effectiveness Safety Influenza