New immunization financing guide available now

Health economics
22 February 2017

Today, a new resource guide, Immunization Financing: A Resource Guide for Advocates, Policymakers, and Program Managers, was released to provide practical advice to low- and middle-income countries seeking to mobilize resources for immunization programs. The guide offers 26 briefs, including eight country case studies, to assist countries looking to sustainably finance immunization.


The resource guide was developed as an open-access tool ( to assist advocates and decision-makers as they evaluate the pros and cons of potential financing sources. The guide is also designed to help users understand and plan for immunization costs, assess which vaccines to adopt, learn how to build broad political support for immunization programs, and determine how to make limited funds work more effectively. 
Several major emerging global trends make this resource guide even more relevant:
Many countries have made historic commitments to immunization in recent years, including the endorsement of the Global Vaccine Action Plan in 2012 by all 194 World Health Assembly member states and the 2016 Addis Declaration on Immunization, in which African countries committed to increasing domestic financing for both vaccines and immunization service delivery.
The number of new, lifesaving vaccines has continued to expand, offering unprecedented opportunities to countries, but also requiring increased financing.
Additionally, many countries that have experienced economic growth are transitioning away from external support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, to full domestic financing.
Immunization is among the most safe, impactful and cost-effective health interventions available. Immunization programs save two million lives per year, and because of vaccines, smallpox has been eradicated. A recent analysis published in Health Affairs found that every dollar low- and middle-income countries invest to expand access to vaccines returns $16, and the return increases to $44 once broader economic benefits are taken into account. 
Funding immunization in low- and middle-income countries can be a major challenge. Although immunization coverage in the poorest countries has improved significantly, one in five children in Africa still do not receive the most basic vaccines. Governments face difficult decisions when determining where and how to spend limited funding. They face many competing priorities, including, for example, investments in other health interventions, infrastructure development and education. Immunization requires careful planning and sustained funding by governments. The guide’s case studies provide helpful examples detailing different financing approaches that nations have adopted.
“The governments of low- and middle-income countries often tell us that they need practical tools that will help them determine how to mobilize domestic resources and to ensure that funds are being used efficiently and effectively,” said Gina Lagomarsino, president and CEO of Results for Development. “This immunization financing resource guide — which draws on examples from peer countries — provides exactly the kind of information that decision-makers need.” 

Documents to download

The Immunization Financing Resource Guide is currently available in English. It will be translated into French in mid-2017. The guide was produced by Results for Development, based on research funded in part by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The resource guide is an update to the Immunization Financing Toolkit: A Resource for Policy-Makers and Program Managers, published by the World Bank and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, in December 2010.
To access the resource guide online, visit To obtain print copies, please contact Daniel Arias at 

Related News & Events

  • Africa
    Health economics

    Informing Vaccine Decision Making with Economic Evidence


    The HPID Center organized a training workshop to support NITAGs in understanding the role of economic evidence in the development of immunization recommendations. The workshop, which took place in Abidjan on March 29th and 30th, gathered the CNEIV-CI and its secretariat, the NITAG of Cote d’Ivoire, and representatives from the NITAGs of Benin, Burkina Faso, and Senegal.

    This “on demand” training is now part of the training catalogue. Building on the other trainings offered to NITAGs, it focuses on the integration of relevant economic aspects in the recommendation framework, the principles of economic analyses, and the interpretation of results in light of decision making. NITAGs should include economic aspects for consideration in developing recommendations and this training surely help grasp the  methodology.

    Read more
  • Costa Rica
    Health economics

    Agenda for ProVac Regional Workshop is Out


    The workshop aims to provide national public health experts with training on tools and methods to estimate the impact, costs and cost-effectiveness of vaccines in order to guide decision makers in developing evidence-based immunization policies. The workshop will feature case examples for meningococcal vaccination.

    Expected outcomes:

    1. Participants are empowered to promote evidence-based decision making at the national level for immunization policy formulation.
    2. Participants increase knowledge regarding the use of economic evaluations to inform evidence-based decision making.
    3. Participants have capacity to apply methods learned to conduct national level cost-effectiveness analyses with technical support from PAHO’s ProVac Initiative.
    4. Participants are equipped with new tools and approaches to inform national priority setting processes around vaccine policy development.
    Read more
  • Health policy

    Have you ever considered mandatory immunization?


    This article analyses countries that implemented mandatory infant and childhood immunization, sharing the best practices and lessons learnt.

    Read more